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When a wafer is cut from a crystal with a regular crystal structure, the surface is oriented in one of several opposite directions, called the orientation. This is also the growth plane of crystalline silicon. Orientation is important for the electronic properties of the wafer, and the structure and electronic properties of many single crystals are highly anisotropic. The orientations of silicon wafers are classified using the Miller index, including (100), (111) and (110). Cutting the wafer along the cleave allows the ordinary chip to divide billions of individual circuit components into many independent circuits.

Alfa Chemistry provides customers with accurate wafer orientation testing services to meet customer application requirements. Our test reports are professional and authoritative.

Crystal Orientation Detection Technology

Our testing capabilities include, but are not limited to, the following:

InstrumentDescriptionSample Pretreatment
X-ray diffraction (XRD)Only a limited number of crystal grains can be tested, and it is limited by the extinction law of the system.No
Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)Only an area of a few square centimeters can be tested.Mechanical mirror polishing
Neutron diffraction (ND)Only a limited number of crystal grains can be tested, and it is limited by the extinction law of the system.No
Selected area electron diffraction (SAED)Only a small area can be tested, and it is limited by the extinction law of the system.Made into slices
Laue scanner (XRD)It can scan large-size silicon wafers with grain distribution, and can test a large area of 15.6 x 15.6 cm2.No

Detectable Samples Include:

  • Wafer specification diameter: 150mm, 200mm, 300mm.
  • Conductivity: P or N type.
  • Material: Si, GaAs, Ge, SiC, InP.Surface: Cutting, grinding, etching, polishing and patterned.
  • Flat/notch: All SEMI standard flat or notch.

Orientation Analysis Instrument Platforms

Instrument Platforms of Orientation Analysis

The instrument platforms we have include, but are not limited to, following:

  • Malvern Panalytical X'Pert³ MRD XL
  • Photonic Science Laue Crystal Orientation System
  • AZtec EBSD system

Testing Standard

  • ASTM F847-1994(1999) Standard Test Method for X-ray Measurement of Crystallographic Orientation of Reference Plane of Single Crystal Silicon Wafer
  • GB/T 13388-2009 Crystallographic Orientation X-ray Test Method of Silicon Wafer Reference Plane


  1. Lehmann T, et al. (2014). "Laue Scanner: A New Method for Determination of Grain Orientations and Grain Boundary Types of Multicrystalline Silicon on A Full Wafer Scale." Acta Materialia.69: 1-8.

Our products and services are for research use only and cannot be used for any clinical purpose.

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